A combination of two or more metal elements.American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
An organization that tests materials and attempts to set standards on various materials for industry.Ampere (A)
The unit expressing the rate of flow of an electrical current. One ampere is the current flowing through one ohm of resistance at one volt potential.Annealing
The process of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired micro-structure or obtaining desired physical, mechanical or other properties.Anodizing
An electrolytic process for producing a protective or decorative film on certain metals chiefly aluminum and magnesium.AWG
Abbreviation for American Wire Gauge, a measure of the size or diameter of a wire or conductor.
A connector design used in panel or box applications in which the mounting flange is located inside the equipment enclosure.Bandwidth
The frequency range over which the connector or device can operate without degradation of performance. Also the information carrying capacity of digital systems and used frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets.Base Metal
The metal from which the connector, contact or other metal accessory is made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited.Bend Radius
The maximum amount fiber or cable that can be bent without causing damage. Also called minimum safe bending radius.Braid
The covering formed from textile yarn. Braids provide mechanical and thermal protection to plastic insulation, separate cable segments in multi-conductor cables and act as components in flame retardant cables. See also Shield.Breakdown Voltage
The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors will break down.
An insulated conductor or group of individually insulated conductors in twisted or parallel configurations.Cable Assembly
A completed cable and its associated hardware used frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets.Center Conductor
The inner conductive member in a coaxial structure, such as center contacts.Circular Connector
Any of a thousand flavors of mulitpin interconnects with cylindrical contact housings and circular contact interface geometries used frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets. Circular connectors are selected for their ease of engagement and disengagement, their ability to conveniently house different types of contacts, their wide range of allowable contact voltages and currents, their ease of environmental sealing and their rugged mechanical performance.Closed Entry
A contact cavity design in which the ID of the socket insulator is smaller than the ID of the socket contact. Closed entry limits the size or position of the mating contact to a maximum predetermined dimension.Coaxial Contacts (and Cable)
Used frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets.Consists of a contact equipped with inner and outer conductive elements separated by a center dielectric element. Coaxial contacts are used to terminate coaxial cable, and are typically employed in high bandwidth, high-frequency applications such as video and audio communications. The unique cable offers a closed, controlled impedance medium for the transmission of RF energy. It also provides robust electrical performance at high frequencies and naturally shields against Radio Frequency Interference (RFI).Coaxial Line
A transmission line consisting of a center conductor suspended in a hollow cylindrical tube with or without a dielectric support. The hollow cylindrical tube is called the outer conductor.Conductor
A wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another, suitable for carrying electric current.Connector
Used generally to describe all devices used to provide rapid connect/disconnect service for wires, cables, and fibers and used frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets. Micro miniature connectors and nano miniature or nano D connectors come in many different shapes. Micro-D connector with a rectangular housing in metal or plastic, Micro strip connector, micro circular connector metal or plastic housings, these connectors will have a 0.050’’ pitch (contact to contact spacing). These connectors are 4 times the density of a D-sub connector. For space saving and weight saving, Nano miniature or nano D connector are the new generation of connectors. Nano miniature or nano D connectors 0.025’’ pitch (contact to contact spacing) are the evolution of micro-D miniature series. Nano miniature or nano D connectors are available in many forms and termination, wire to wire, wire to board, board to board. Nano miniature or nano D connectors comes in metal housing pre-wired, Nano miniature or nano D connectors for PCB termination, ether SMT or thru hole configurations. Nano miniature or nano D connectors are also available in circular shapes with plastic or metal housing where space and weight are limited and connection reliability in extreme environment are critical.Connector Body
The metal or plastic shell of a connector. Its main purpose is to house the contacts, maintain their position and shield them from dust, dirt, moisture, and electrical interference.
Our micro-D connector bodies and nano miniature or nano D connector bodies are machined in such the plastic insulator can be molded into the connector body (housing) or Glue into the Micro miniature or nano miniature or nano D housing (shell). These configurations allow us to provide plastic connector body where everybody else have to make new tool to provide the same part.
The conductive element in a connector. Contacts mate mechanically and electrically to transmit signals and/or power across a connector interface. Crimp style contacts are the most common type found in high-reliability cylindrical connectors. Male contacts are sometimes referred to as leads, posts or pins. Female contacts are universally known as sockets.Contact (or Circuit) Identifier
Interconnect systems have multiple circuits and it is critical to be able to keep track of them from one end of the system to the other. Wiring schematics therefore identify and label each and every circuit with numbers, letters or special codes. On the connector, this process is maintained by marking (via silkscreening or other media) small numbers or letters next to each contact cavity, on both the front and rear of the connector.Contact Arrangement
The gauge, number, spacing and arrangement of contacts in a connector. Contact arrangement selections are based on the current and voltage requirements of the application, and the space available for the connector package. Sometimes called the contact pattern.Contact Engaging & Separating Force
The force needed to either engage or separate pin and socket contacts.Contact Plating
Plated-on metal coating applied to the basic contact metal to provide the required contact resistance and/or wear resistance.Contact Resistance
The measure of electrical resistance across a pair of fully mated contacts. Measured in ohms or millivolt drop at a specified current, contact resistance is affected by normal force (the static force on the contact interface), plating quality and the physical geometry of the contact.Contact Retention
The pressure or load a contact can withstand, in either direction, without being dislodged from the retaining clip which holds it in place within the connector body.Contact Size
An assigned number (such as #20 or #22) denoting the outside diameter of the engaging end of the pin contact. Like many other technical dimensions, the larger the number, the smaller the size.Contact Spacing
Also referred to as pitch, contact spacing is the distance, center-to-center, between adjacent contacts.Contacts
The conducting members of a connecting device that are designed to provide a separable through connection in a cable-to-cable, cable-to-box or a box-to-box situation within a connector often frequently used in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets.Continuity Check
A test performed on a length of finished wire or cable to determine if the electrical current flows continuously throughout the length. Conductors may also be checked against each other to ascertain that there are no shorts between adjacent members. Micro Miniature connectors are using a 24 awg stamped contact while the nano miniature or nano D connector product line are using 30 awg stamped contacts. Both contacts are high precision progressive dies to allow a perfect repeatability of the contact. Size 24 micro contact is used in all product configurations, micro-D PCB thru hole, micro-D PCB SMT, micro-D with wire, micro-D with solder cup, micro strip connector, circular micro connector. Available contacts will be coax contact or Power contact which can be design into a micro-D connector body which allows to provide a Combo interconnect solution called Combo connector where signal, power, Coax contacts can be mixed within the same connector. Size 30 nano contact is used in all product configurations, nano miniature or nano D PCB thru hole, nano miniature or nano D D PCB SMT, nano miniature or nano D with wire, nano miniature or nano D with solder tab for field attacheable, nano miniature strip connector, circular nano miniature connector.Crimp Termination
A connection in which a metal sleeve is secured to a conductor by mechanically crimping the sleeve with pliers, presses or automated crimping machines. Splices, terminals and multi-contact connectors are typical terminating devices attached by crimping. Suitable for all wire typesCurrent (I)
The rate of transfer of electricity, usually expressed in amperes.Current Rating
The maximum continuous electrical flow of current recommended for a given wire in a given situation. Expressed in amperes (AMPS).Cycle
The complete sequence including reversal of the flow of an alternating electric current.
(1) Abbreviation for decibel; (2) The loss of a signal in a conductor expressed in decibels, denoting the ratio of the power input to output; (3) One tenth of a bel.Dielectric
A material having electrical insulating properties, such as the contact insulator in a connector or the jacketing on a wire.Dielectric Constant (K)
That property of a dielectric that determines the electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for unit potential gradient. Also called permittivity and specific inductive capacity.Dielectric Strength
The voltage which an insulating material can withstand before breakdown occurs, usually expressed as a voltage gradient (such as volts per mil).Direct Current (D-C)
An electric current that flows in only one direction, substantially constant in value.Durometer
A measurement used to denote the hardness of a substance, usually an elastomer.
A connector or terminal block usually having double-ended terminals which permit simple distribution and bussing of electrical circuits. Also used to describe a bushing in a wall or bulkhead separating compartments at different pressure levels with terminations on both sides.Fiber Optics (F.O.)
A general term describing a lightwave or optical communications system. In such a system, electrical information is converted to light energy, transmitted to another location through optical fibers and is there converted back into electrical information.Filter Contact or Filter Connector
Contact design which provides EMI suppression in addition to its normal function of transmitting electrical energy. Filtered connectors are typically specified for high-speed signal paths. Filtering is accomplished through the integration of capacitors into the contact to separate high-frequency noise from low-frequency signals.Flange
A mechanical shoulder on the outside housing, enabling attachment to a panel; can also allow for seals with gaskets or o-rings.Flexible
That quality of a cable or cable component which allows for bending under the influence of outside force, as opposed to limpness, which is bending that occurs due to the cable's own weight.Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP)
FEP is similar to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTPE) but has a melting point of about 50° C lower and slightly different physical properties.Frequency
The number of times an alternating current repeats its cycle in one second, expressed in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz).Front Mounted
A connector is front mounted when it is attached to the outside or mating side of a panel. A front mounted connector can only be installed or removed from the outside of the equipment.Front Release
"Crimp and poke" style contacts may be removed from the connector for maintenance using a special hand-held tool. The proper insertion and removal tool must be used at all times. In front release designs, the tool is inserted into the mating face of the connector to disengage the contact from its retaining clip. The disengaged contact is then removed from the back (cable-side) of the connector by lightly pulling on the attached wire.
A component made from an elastomer, such as rubber, to provide an environmental seal in the interface of a connector pair. Also called a "grommet".Giga
A numerical prefix denoting one billion (109)Ground (GRD)
An electrical term meaning to connect to the earth or other large conducting body to serve as an earth, thus making a complete electrical circuit. Sometimes at zero potential or voltage.Guide Pins
Metal post(s) with a rounded or pointed tip which projects beyond the contact interface, used to assist in the correct alignment and mating of connector shells and contacts. The post mates with a corresponding cavity on the mating connector before contacts are allowed to engage. Guide pins are typically used in rack and panel packaging and in other "blind-mate" applications frequently used in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets. Guide pins can also be used to insure correct polarization.
The term describing tubes, sleeves, caps, boots, films, or other forms of plastic which shrink to encapsulate, protect or insulate connections, splices, terminations, and other configurations.Hermetic
Permanently sealed by fusion, soldering, or other means to prevent the transmission of air, moisture vapor, and all other gases. Hermeticity is usually expressed as the rate of leakage volume of tracer gas (such as helium) per second in time.Hermetic Connector
A class of high-reliability connectors equipped with a pressure seal for use in maintaining pressurized application environments used frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets. The hermetic element of the connector is typically fabricated from vitreous glass.Hertz (Hz)
Unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.Hi-pot
A test designed to determine the highest potential that can be applied to a conductor without breaking through the insulation.High Voltage
Generally, a wire or cable with an operating voltage of over 600 volts.Holding Strength
The ability of a connector to remain assembled to a cable when under tension.Housing
The main or largest portion of a connector to which other portions are attached or enclosed.
The central conductive member in a coaxial structure, such as the center contact in a coaxial connector.Insert
That part which holds the contacts in their proper arrangements and electrically insulates them from each other and from the shell. Also called dielectric, insulator, or dielectric support.Insert Retention
The axial load in either direction that an insert must withstand without being dislocated from its normal position in the connector shell.Insertion Loss
The loss in load power resulting from the insertion of a cable, component, or device. It is expressed in decibels as the ratio of power received at the load before insertion to the power received at the load after insertion.Insulation
A test designed to determine the highest potential that can be applied to a conductor without breaking through the insulation.A material which offers high electrical resistance, making it suitable for covering components, terminals, and wires. This prevents the possible future contact of adjacent conductors resulting in a short circuit.Insulation Displacement
Generally, a wire or cable with an operating voltage of over 600 volts.A form of termination in which an insulated wire is pressed into a terminal slot smaller than the conductor diameter, displacing the jacket insulation to make electrical contact.Insulation Resistance
The ratio of the applied voltage to the total current between two electrodes in contact with a specific insulator.Interface
(1) A shared boundary;(2) The two surfaces on the contact side of both halves of a multiple-contact connector that face each other when the connector is assembled; (3) In fiber optics, the surface where two materials meet, as in core-cladding interface, or fiber-to-fiber interface in a connector.Interfacial Seal
An elastomeric seal--generally found in the pin contact side of a mated pair--designed to provide overall sealing of the mated connectors and their individual contacts. "Cork and bottle" style interfacial seals feature a raised shoulder around each pin contact which compresses into the corresponding hole on the socket contact insulator.Frequently seen in connectors used in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets.ISO
Abbreviation for International Organization for Standardization.
An outer non-metallic protective covering applied over an insulated wire or cable.
A short pin or other projection which slides in a mating slot or groove to guide two parts being assembled. Generally used in round, shell-enclosed connectors to prevent mating wrong connectors and to assist in polarization.Keyway
The slot or groove in which a key slides.Kilo
A numerical prefix denoting 1000 (10³).
A classification system for connectors which defines connector types in terms of their role or function in the interconnect system. In other words, which points of the system do they connect? The levels of most use to us mortals include Level 4 (subassembly to subassembly), Level 5 (subassembly to I/O) and Level 6 (system to system). The lower levels (1, 2 and 3) all concern interconnection inside the microscopic world of circuits and boards. This approach to classifying connector types is particularly useful in interconnect system design, because it reminds the designer to attend to the environmental, electrical and mechanical requirements typically found at each level.Loss
Energy dissipated without accomplishing useful work, attenuation, usually expressed in dB.Lug
A mechanical termination, usually crimped or soldered to the conductor, with provision for threading on to a terminal; hardware.
To join two connector halves in a normal engaging mode.Mating and Unmating Force
The force required to join and separate two halves of a connector. This is the sum of contact engaging forces plus any additional force necessary to overcome minor misalignment of connector halves and any dimensional variations in the connector shells.
A measure of the spring pressure applied perpendicularly to contacts in mated connectors. The force of this spring pressure creates the gas-tight interface between contact. surfaces which prevents corrosive contaminants from penetrating or forming between the contacts. High normal force reduces resistance across the contacts, but contributes to contact wear and may overstress the connector housing and even damage the spring properties of contact sockets. Maintaining a constant normal force is however an essential requirement for electrical integrity in the connector.
The length, width and height of the connector; or alternatively the dimensions of the entire interconnect system. Package size is an issue in many applications where system miniaturization, faster operating speeds, higher operating temperatures and other application requirements place new demands on the envelope of space the connector and its accessories may occupyPhosphor Bronze
This strong and relatively hard alloy is used to fabricate metal parts and springs. Phosphor bronze is resistant to corrosion.).Pin Contact
A male-type contact, usually designed to mate with a socket or female contact. It is normally connected to the "dead" side of a circuit.Pinholes
Small holes visible on the surface of soldered joints, which generally indicate the presence of a larger void within the joint. Typically caused by the generation of gas during solidification due to presence of salts and water. Sometimes called blowholes.Plating
The overlaying of a thin coating of noble metal on metallic components to improve conductivity, provide for easy soldering or prevent rusting or corrosion.Plug
The half of a connector pair which is designed to attach to a wire or cable and is moveable; as opposed to the receptacle half which is typically stationary ( mounted to a bulkhead, panel or box). Even though we usually picture plugs as having male (pin) contacts, they can in fact house any type of contact--pins, sockets or even both. Thus it is the design and location of the connector which makes it a plug, not the gender of the contacts it contains.Polarization
The arrangement of mating connectors such that the connectors can be mated in only one orientation.Polarize
Design features on mating connectors--such as keyways or shell geometries--that insure connectors can be mated in only one possible orientation. The shape of a D-Sub connector shell, for example, assures that the two halves of the connector can be mated in only one way.Polarizing Pin, Key, or Keyway
A device incorporated in a connector to accomplish polarization.Polyethylene
A thermoplastic with toughness, flexibility at low temperatures, resistance to chemicals and moisture, processability, and relatively low price.Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
This is the most thermally stable and chemically resistant of all carbonaceous insulating compounds. It is unaffected by sunlight, moisture, and practically all chemicals. Temperature range is -90° to +250° C and electrical properties are very constant over the temperature range and a wide range of frequencies.Potting
The permanent sealing of the cable end of a connector with a compound or material to exclude moisture or to provide a strain relief. Winchester Interconnect Micro, formerly known as Ulti-Mate Connector, typically uses epoxy compounds for this purpose because of their dimensional stability and high-temperature resistance.Pre-Tinned Solder Cup
Solder cups whose inner surfaces have been pre-coated a small amount of tin lead solder.Printed Circuit
This term is in common use with at least two meanings: A generic term to describe a printed board produced by any of a number of techniques used to fabricate electrical interconnect systems. A circuit obtained by printing and comprising printed componentsPTFE
Abbreviation for polytetrafluoroethylene, commonly known as Teflon.
An abbreviation of quadraxial, a concentric cable having a center conductor, two intermediate conductors, and an outer shield, all separated by insulation.Quick Disconnect
A type of connector shell that permits rapid locking and unlocking of two connector halves.
The frequency range is technically broad, from about 25 kHz to 100 GHz, but the term is normally used to define the low range band of frequencies used for broadcast radio signals (including broadcast television) and extends from about 500 kHz to a few hundred megahertz.Rear Mounted
A connector is rear mounted when it is insta1led from the inside of a box onto a panel. It can only be removed from the inside of the equipment. Used frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets.Rear Release
"Crimp and poke" style contacts (see Crimp Contacts above) may be removed from the connector for maintenance using a special hand-held tool. The proper insertion and removal tool must be used to install and remove wires from such crimp and poke connectors. In rear release designs, the tool is inserted into the rear (cable side) of the connector to disengage the contact from its retaining clip. The disengaged contact is then removed from the connector by lightly pulling on the attached wireReceptacle
The other half of the connector pair that is typically stationary, designed to be mounted--with jam nut fittings or other fastener hardware--to a bulkhead, panel, chassis or box. In-line receptacles are also available for cable-to-cable connections. As with the plug, it is the design and location of the receptacle in the interconnect system, not the gender of its contacts, which makes it a receptacle movable, or in-line receptacles, are also available for cable connections.Style seen frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets.Rectangular Connector
Any of the thousands of multipin interconnects with rectangular shell housings and rectangular insert interface geometries. Rectangular connectors are typically mounted in rack and panel configurations in which large arrays of fixed receptacle connectors are mated with plugs attached to a movable rack. The rack and panel configuration allows for efficient utilization of available space in applications where space is at a premium, such as in cockpit avionics. Other common uses for rectangular connectors are in the wire-to-board and board-to-board interconnection of PCB's and their I/O cabling. The D-Subminiature is the most ubiquitous rectangular connector in the world.Resistance
A measure of the difficulty in moving electrical current through a medium when voltage is applied. It is expressed in ohms.Return Loss
A measure of the percentage of the incident power that is reflected back down the transmission line. Return loss is the percentage reflected power expressed in dB notation.RG/U
Abbreviation for Radio Guide, Universal. RG is the military designation for coaxial cable.Rubber
An elastic (natural or synthetic) material (e.g. silicone) used to provide waterproofing or moisture resistance.
Also called Current Rating, the maximum voltage or current load a connector is designed to carry during continuous, long-term use. Good engineering practice usually entails preliminary testing of connectors which will be operated with most or all contacts at the maximum rated load. Designers will often maximize contact and wire size in such situations.Sheath
The outer covering or jacket of a multi-conductor cable.Shield
In cables, a metallic layer placed around a conductor or group of conductors to prevent electrostatic or electromagnetic interference between the enclosed wire and external fields. See "Braid".Shield Effectiveness
The ability of a shield to screen out undesirable signals and prevent leakage.Socket Contact
A female contact designed to mate with a male contact. It is normally connected to the "live" side of a circuit.Solder
A metal or metal alloy, usually having a low melting point, used to join other metals having higher melting points than the solder.Solder Cup
A tubular end of a terminal in which a conductor is inserted prior to being soldered. It is also the hollow cylinder at the rear of a solder contact where a wire is inserted and soldered in place.Solid Conductor
A conductor consisting of a single wire.Stranded Conductor
A conductor composed of groups of wires twisted together.Surface Mounting
The electrical connection of components to the surface of a conductive pattern without utilizing component holes in a circuit board. A termination method in which solder "tails" or leads on the connector are soldered directly to a printed circuit board. In high reliability commercial and military applications, surface mount receptacle connectors are typically limited to rectangular designs such as D-Subminiatures and Micro-D's. But some surface-mount applications do use a cylindrical connector mounted to the box with ribbon cable or flying leads soldered directly to the PCB. The reason here is to provide a low-resistance pathway to ground of the shielded cable. In severe EMI applications, it is less satisfactory to bring the shielded cable directly to the printed circuit board because of the difficulty in shielding out interference conducted along the cable.Used frequently in the Mil Aero, Geophysical and Medical Markets.
(1)The hardness and strength produced by mechanical or thermal treatment or both. It is characterized by a certain structure, mechanical properties or reduction in area during cold working. (2)A measurement of the degree of hardness or lack of ductility in a metal.Temperature Rating
The maximum temperature at which a material may be used in continuous operation without a loss of its basic properties.Termination
Termination is the physical act of attaching a wire conductor to a contact. Effective termination contributes to electrical performance and to the durability and reliability of the interconnect system. Common termination methods include crimp, insulation displacement, surface mount, and soldering. Termination can also refer to the mechanical attachment of EMI shielding to the connector backshell.Threaded Coupling
A means of coupling mating connectors by engaging threads in a coupling ring with threads on a receptacle shell.Tinning
Coating of a terminal, lead or conductive pattern with tin or solder alloy to improve or maintain solderability or to aid in the soldering operation.Transceiver
A device that combines both a transmitter and a receiver.Transmission
The transfer of electric energy from one location to another through conductors or by radiation or induction fields.Triaxial
Refers to a three conductor cable with one conductor in the center, a second circular conductor shield concentric with the first, and the third circular conductor shield insulated from and concentric with the first and second, usually with insulation.Tubing
A tube of extruded non-supported material.Twisted Pair
A pair of wires twisted together, usually standard low-speed communications wire cables.
The term most often used in place of electromotive force, potential, potential difference or voltage drop, to designate electric pressure that exists between two points and is capable of producing a flow of current when a closed circuit is connected between the two pointsVoltage Breakdown
A test to determine maximum voltage across an insulated wire before electrical current leakage occurs through the insulation.Voltage Rating
The highest voltage that may be continuously applied to a wire or cord in conformance with standards or specifications.Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
The ratio of the maximum effective voltage to the minimum effective voltage measured along the length of a mismatched radio frequency transmission line.
Unit of power or work done at rate of one joule per second or rate of work represented by current of one ampere under a pressure of one volt (volt-ampere).Wavelength
The distance measured in the direction of propagation of a repetitive electrical pulse or waveform between two successive points that are characterized by the same phase of vibration (one cycle).Wiping Action
The action that occurs when contacts are mated with a sliding action. Wiping has the effect of removing small amounts of contamination from the contact surfaces, thus establishing better conductivity.Wire Pull-Out Force
A connector specification which defines the force required to separate a wire from a contact. In properly terminated crimp contacts, the wire will generally break before it pulls away from the contact.